Litchfield county. First settled in 1738. Incorporated 1739. Canaan lies 41 miles N.W. from Hartford, and 18 N.N.W. from Litchfield. Population, 1830, 2,301. The town lies on the E. side of Housatonick river, opposite to Salisbury. A ledge of limestone rocks crosses the river at this place, about 30 rods in length, causing a perpendicular fall of 60 feet. The river is rapid, both above and below this beautiful cataract. The whole descent of the river, in Canaan, is about 130 feet, "nobly arranged and distributed, and comprehending a remarkable variety of beauty and grandeur." The township is mountainous, with some arable land along the streams. About 4,000 sheep are kept here. This section of country is noted for its excellent mutton. Limestone and iron ore are abundant; the latter is of a very fine quality. Iron works, on an extensive scale, are established here; a satinet factory and other machinery.