Canaan, New Hampshire
Grafton county. Bounded N. by Dame's gore, which separates it from Dorchester, E. by Orange, S. by Enfield, and W. by Hanover, and is situated on the height of land between the rivers Connecticut and Merrimack. It is 16 miles E. from Dartmouth college, 30 S.E. from Haverhill, 25 S.W. from Plymouth, and 40 N.W. from Concord. The only stream of consequence is the Mascomy, which rises in the N.W. part of Dorchester, and after a meandering course of 8 or 10 miles, falls into Mascomy pond in Enfield. Indian stream river rises in the S.E. corner of Dorchester, and running about 8 miles, mingles with the waters of Mascomy, near the centre of the town. Heart pond, so called from its figure, is situated in the centre of the town, and upon a swell of land so elevated that at a distance it presents the appearance of a sheet of water on a hill. It is about 500 rods in length and 200 in width, and the only natural curiosity of any note, is the mound, or bank of earth, which nearly surrounds the pond. It is from 4 to 5 feet high, and from its uniform height and regular construction would seem to be the work of art; but from frequent annual observation it is found to have been produced by the drifting of the ice when breaking up in the spring. Besides this, there are Goose, Clark's, Mud, and Bear ponds. The land is not so broken as in some of the adjoining towns. There is but little not capable of cultivation. The soil is tolerably fertile, and produces wheat, rye, corn, flax, &c. Canaan was granted by charter, July 9, 1761, to 62 persons, all of whom except ten belonged to Connecticut. It derived its name from Canaan in that state. The first permanent settlement was made in the winter, in 1766 or 7, by John Scofield, who conveyed what effects he possessed the distance of 14 miles over a crust of snow upon a hand-sled. Among others of the first settlers were George Harris, Thomas Miner, Joshua Harris, and Samuel Jones. The first proprietors' meeting was held July 19, 1768. Population, in 1830, 1,428.