Nashua, New Hampshire
Hillsborough county. This town originally embraced a large extent of territory, and was called Dunstable until 1836. It lies 34 miles S. by E. from Concord, 12 S.E. from Amherst, and 12 N.W. from Lowell. The population of Dunstable, in 1830, was 2,414. Population of Nashua in 1836, 5,065; 1837, 5,613; 1838, 5,691.
In the N.W. part of the town, on Nashua river, is the flourishing Village of Nashua, the centre of a considerable trade and the seat of important manufactures. This village contains 8 beautiful churches, a large number of elegant dwelling-houses, 50 stores, and 10 taverns.
The Nashua Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1823. It has three cotton mills, 155 feet in length, 45 in breadth, and six stories in height. They contain 22,600 spindles, 710 looms, and manufacture 9,390,000 yards of cloth per annum. Their canal is 3 miles long, 60 feet wide, and 8 feet deep. Head and fall, 33 feet. Capital, $750,000.
The Jackson Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1824. Capital, $600,000. They have two cotton mills, 155 feet long, 47 wide, and 4 stories high. These mills contain 11,500 spindles and 388 looms. They manufacture 5,634,000 yards of cloth annually. Their canal is half a mile in length, and serves for transportation on the river. Head and fall, 20 feet.
The volume of water afforded by Nashua river, at the dryest season of the year, is 180 cubic feet per second.
The number of operatives in all the mills at Nashua is 1,448:—females, 1,288; males, 160. The number of pounds of cotton used is 14,500 per day, or 4,538,500 lbs. per annum.
There are other valuable manufactures on Nashua river, and the waters of Salmon brook.
The Nashua and Lowell railroad was opened for travel on the 8th of October, 1838.
The soil of Nashua has considerable variety. It is easy of cultivation, and is generally productive. The east part of the town, lying on the river, presents a very level surface. The west parts are divided into hills and valleys, but the whole township may be considered far from being hilly or mountainous. It is watered by the Nashua river, a fertilizing stream, which rises in the state of Massachusetts, and Salmon brook, a small stream which originates from several ponds in Groton. Both of these empty into Merrimack river, the former at Nashua village, the latter about one and a half mile below.
This was for a long time a frontier town, and the first settlers were many times annoyed by the Indians in the successive wars in which this country was engaged with them. In the war with the famous Narraganset sachem, this town was much exposed, and some of the inhabitants fled to the older settlements. In Lovewell's war, the company in this town under the brave Capt. John Lovewell, acquired an imperishable name. Their successes at first, and misfortunes afterwards, have been often repeated and are generally known.
Dunstable belonged to Massachusetts till the divisional line between the two provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire was settled in 1741. It was incorporated by New Hampshire, April 1, 1746, and the name was altered to Nashua in December, 1836.