Coos County, New Hampshire
Coos is the largest county in New Hampshire, and within its limits are situated the contested Indian Stream territory and the greater part of the ungranted lands. Large portions of this county are exceedingly mountainous, cannot be cultivated, and will probably never be settled. This county extends from lat. 43°58' to the extreme north part of the state—being 76 miles in length, and having a mean width of about 20 miles. The area of this county is estimated to contain 1600 square miles, or, in round numbers, 1,000,000 acres. It is bounded N. by Lower Canada, E. by Maine, S. by the county of Strafford, W. by Grafton county and the state of Vermont. Besides the stupendous pile of the White Mountains, which distinguishes this county, there are several other mountains of no inconsiderable height. Those in Shelburne, Jackson, and Chatham, on the east side of the White Mountains, are bold and abrupt. The Peak and Bowback mountains in Stratford; the elevations in Dixville, Columbia and Kilkenny; Pilot and Mill mountains in Stark; Cape Horn in Northumberland, and Pondicherry, S.W. of Jefferson, are all of considerable magnitude and partake of the grandeur of the White Hills. In the neighborhood of high mountains are generally found the sources of our greater rivers. Three of the principal rivers of New England, the Connecticut, the Androscoggin and Saco, take their rise in this county. There are numerous other streams which become tributary to these rivers, the principal of which are the Mohawk, Amonoosuck, Israel's, and John's rivers. The Margallaway, after receiving the waters of Dead and Diamond rivers, unites with the Androscoggin, near Umbagog lake. This lake lies principally in Maine. Lake Connecticut is situated north of the 45th degree of latitude, and is one of the sources of Connecticut river. The largest pond in this county lies N. of lake Connecticut, and is connected with it by an outlet.
The first settlement in the county was made at Lancaster in 1763. The county was incorporated Dec. 24, 1803, and the name is of Indian origin, although the same name occurs in the New Testament. The population in 1820 was 5,549; and in 1830, 8,390. Coos contains 23 towns, and five inhabitants to a square mile. Lancaster, Shiretown.