Essex county. This is a maritime township, comprising the whole of Cape Ann, and celebrated for the enterprise of its people in the fisheries and commercial pursuits. It is one of the oldest fishing establishments in the state. This cape extends about 8 miles into the sea, and forms the northern boundary of Massachusetts bay. Its harbor is capacious, easy of access at any season, and of sufficient water for ships of great burthen. Gloucester harbor and the chief settlements are on the south side. Sandy and Squam bays lie on the north side, about 4 miles from the south harbor, and afford harbors for small vessels. The lights on Thatcher's island bear about northeast 6 miles from East Point, the eastern boundary of Gloucester harbor. As early as 1794 the exports from this place, in one year, amounted to $230,000. Here are immense quarries of light and grayish granite, which is split with great ease, and in large regularly formed blocks. This stone is of a fine grain, is easily dressed, and can be put on board of vessels with little expense. The demand for this stone is rapidly increasing, and the quarrying, hammering, and transporting it gives employment to many men and vessels. The canal across the neck of the cape has failed of that success which was anticipated. The manufactures of palm-leaf hats, boots, shoes, hats, vessels, chairs, tin and cabinet wares, in the year ending April 1, 1837, amounted to $46,726. In that year there were 221 vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, the tonnage of which was 9,824 tons. They took 55,181 quintals of cod fish, and 43,934 barrels of mackerel: 113,760 bushels of salt was used, and 1,580 hands employed. The value of the cod and mackerel taken was $522,082. There are belonging to this place a great number of vessels engaged in foreign and domestic trade. The total tonnage of the district in 1837 was 18,802 tons. This town lies in N. lat. 42°36', W. lon. 70°40', and was incorporated in 1639. Population, 1820, 6,384; 1830, 7,513; 1837, 8,822. It lies 28 miles N.E. from Boston and 16 N.E. by E. from Salem. Gloucester is a very pleasant town, and a delightful retreat in summer months.