Berkshire county. This is a flourishing agricultural and manufacturing township comprising two villages, north and south, whose trade goes to New York. It is 40 miles E. of Troy, N.Y., 120 W.N.W. of Boston, 29 N. of Lenox, and 7 miles S.E. of Williamstown college. The Hoosack river passes through this town, and affords great water power. There are in this town 19 cotton mills, 4 satinet factories, and 2 calico printing establishments. There are also in this town large machine shops, 4 tanneries, 3 air and cupola furnaces, and manufactories of shovels, spades, hoes, forks, chairs and cabinet ware. The total value of the manufactures of this place in the year ending April 1, 1837, amounted to $1,045,417.
Between the years 1746 and 1756, this town was the scene of much Indian warfare. Traces of old Fort Massachusetts are still found. Saddle Mountain, the summit of which is called Gray lock [Mount Greylock], the highest of Massachusetts mountains, lies chiefly in this town, and, although it is 3,600 feet above the level of the sea, is of easy ascent. A view from Gray lock probably gives "an idea of vastness and even of immensity" better than any other landscape in New England, Mt. Washington in N.H. excepted. The natural bridge on Hudson's Brook, in this town, is a curiosity worthy the notice of travellers. The waters of this brook have worn a fissure from 30 to 60 feet deep and 30 rods in length, through a body of white marble, or limestone, and formed a bridge of that material, 50 feet above the surface of the water. There is a cavern in this town, 30 feet long, 20 high, and 20 wide. Incorporated 1778. Population 1820 1,836—1830, 2,648—1834, 3,000—and in 1837, 4,191.