Shire town, Fairfield county. This ancient and patriotic town comprises three parishes, Fairfield, the seat of justice, Green's Farms, and Greenfield. Fairfield lies 21 miles S.W. from New Haven and 58 N.E. from New York. Population, 1830, 4,246. Its Indian name was Unquowa. The surface of the town is undulating and very pleasant. The soil is fertile, well cultivated and productive of wheat and rye, and a great variety of fruits and vegetables for New York market. Black Rock harbor is safe and easy of entrance for vessels drawing 19 feet of water at common tides. The tide usually rises in Long Island Sound about 5 feet. There is but little water power in Fairfield, except that produced by the tide. The tonnage of Fairfield district, in 1837, was 11,988 tons. The principal business in navigation is the coasting trade.